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Isolation of Microorganisms of Public Health Importance From Some Streams In Nsit Ubium LGA

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Isolation of Microorganisms of Public Health Importance from Some Streams in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State is a fully research topic successfully carried out, approved and recommended. Therefore feel safe to purchase it but you may not exactly use words for words.

Abstract

Isolation of microorganisms of public health importance was carried out on stream water samples in Nsit Ubium. Samples from upstream and downstream portion of four streams were assessed using standard microbiological techniques. The determination of the bacterial load was done using membrane filtration method and pour plate techniques. The antibiogram analysis was conducted using Kirby-Bauer Agar-disc diffusion method. The result obtained revealed the presence of Corynebacterium sp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio Cholerae and Streptococcus sp. on the upstream layer while Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp. and Streptococcus sp. on the downstream layer. Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli occurred more frequently than other bacterial isolates, (14.30%) respectively. The fungal isolates included Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum. The downstream recorded high microbial count as against the upstream. Total Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts (THBC) ranged from 1.7 ± 2×103 to 3.4 ± 12×103 CFU/100ml for upstream and downstream respectively.  Total Coliform Counts (TCC) ranged from 114 ± 5 to 150 ± 1 CFU/100ml and 132 ± 2 to 206.5 ± 1.5 CFU/100ml for upstream and downstream respectively. Faecal Coliform Counts (FCC) ranged 99 ± 6 to 147 ± 8 and 105.5 ± 4.5 to 176 ± 5 CFU/100ml for upstream and downstream respectively; Total Vibrio Counts (TVC) ranged from 0 to 7.0 ± 2×102 CFU/ml for upstream and downstream while Total Fungal Counts (TFC) ranged from 6.0 ± 2 ×102 to 2.0 ± 2×103 CFU/ml and 7.0 ± 0×102 to 1.35 ± 1.5×103 CFU/ml for upstream and downstream respectively. Antibiogram carried out showed that (62%) of bacterial isolate were susceptible to Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin (60%), while (68%) of bacterial isolates were resistant to Ceftazidime. Fungal isolates were more susceptible to Voriconazole as Aspergillus niger displayed resistance to Metronidazole. Thus the presence of some pathogenic microorganisms reveals consumption of these water sources is unsafe since they fell short of standards as recommended by the World Health Organization. Hence governmental and non-governmental bodies should necessitate the provision of functional and potable water as part of the millennium development goals.

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Table of Contents for Isolation of Microorganisms of Public Health Importance from Some Streams in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State

Cover Page

Title Page        –           –           –           –           –           i

Declaration      –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification    –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication      –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           v

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           vi

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           vii

List of Tables  –           –           –           –           –           xi

List of Figures –           –           –           –           –           xii

CHAPTER ONE:      INTRODUCTION

1.1                               Background of Study –           –           –           –           1

1.2                               Statement of Problem             –           –           –           2

1.3                              Aim and Objectives of Study –           –           –           2

CHAPTER TWO:    LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1                               Surface Water             –           –           –           –           3

2.2                               Drinking Water Quality as Defined by W.H.O          3

2.3                               Sources of Water Contamination        –           –           4

2.3.1                            Waste Water and Sewage       –           –           –           4

2.3.2                            Industrial Waste          –           –           –           –           4

2.3.3                            Fossil Fuels     –           –           –           –           –           4

2.3.4                            Sewer Line Leaks       –           –           –           –           5

2.3.5                            Fertilizers and Pesticides        –           –           –           5

2.4                               Major Groups of Microorganisms Associated

with Contamination of water  –           –           –           5

2.4.1                            Bacteria           –           –           –           –           –           5

2.4.2                            Viruses            –           –           –           –           –           6

2.4.3                            Pathogenic Protozoa and Helminthes –           –           7

2.4.4                            Fungal Contaminants  –           –           –           –           8

2.5                               Bacterial Pathogens that is associated with water

that is injurious to Public Health        –           –           9

2.5.1                            Contamination with Escherichia coli –           –           10

2.5.2                            Contaminants with Salmonella species          –           11

2.5.3                            Contamination with Vibrio species     –           –           12

2.5.4                            Contamination with Shigella   species            –           13

2.5.5                            Contamination with Yersinia species  –           –           14

2.5.6                            Contamination with Campylobacter species  –           15

2.5.7                            Contamination with Helicobacter pylori        –           15

2.5.8                            Contamination with Pseudomonas aeruginosa–         15

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1                               Study Area/ Sample Collection          –           –           16

3.2                               Materials and Equipment        –           –           –           17

3.3                               Culture Media Used   –           –           –           –           17

3.4                               Sterilization of Glassware and Media –           –           18

3.5                               Microbiological Analysis        –           –           –           18

3.5.1                            Serial Dilution –           –           –           –           –           18

3.5.2                            Isolation and Enumeration of Bacterial Species-        18

3.5.3                            Isolation and Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria-      18

3.5.4                            Fungal Isolation and Enumeration      –           –           19

3.6                               Purification of Colonies          –           –           –           19

3.7                               Characterization and Identification Bacterial

of Isolates        –           –           –           –           –           19

3.7.1                            Gram’s Staining          –           –           –           –           20

3.7.2                            Oxidase Test   –           –           –           –           –           20

3.7.3                            Indole  Test    –           –           –           –           –           20

3.7.4                            Catalase Test   –           –           –           –           –           21

3.7.5                            Motility Test   –           –           –           –           –           21

3.7.6                            Methyl red and Voges Proskauer Test            –           21

3.7.7                             Citrate Utilization Test          –           –           –           22

3.7.8                            Urease Test     –           –           –           –           –           22

3.7.9                            Coagulase Test            –           –           –           –           23

3.7.10                          Carbohydrate Fermentation    –           –           –           23

3.7.11                          Spore Staining Test     –           –           –           –           24

3.8                               Fungal Characterization          –           –           –           24

3.9                               Antibiogram of Isolates          –           –           –           25

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS

4.1       Cultural and Biochemical and Characteristic of Bacterial Isolates           –           –           –           26

4.2                               Cultural and Microscopic Characteristics

of Fungal Isolate         –           –           –           –           26

4.3                               Microbial Types Isolated from Upstream and

Downstream and their Frequency of Occurrence       27

4.4                               Microbial Loads for Upstream and Downstream

Portions           –           –           –           –           –           27

4.5                               Percentage Occurrence of Total Bacterial Isolates

from both Upstream and Downstream Portions-        28

4.6                               Percentage Occurrence of Fungal Isolates

from both Upstream and Downstream Portions-        28

4.7                               Antibiotics Susceptibility Testing of Total

Bacterial Isolates        –           –           –           –           29

4.8                               Antibiotics Susceptibility Testing of Total

Fungal Isolates            –           –           –           –           30

 CHAPTER FIVE      DISCUSSION

5.1                               Discussion       –           –           –           –           –         41

5.2                               Recommendation        –           –           –           –           46

5.3                              Conclusion       –           –           –           –           –           46

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